ISRO GISAT-1 Satellite

ISRO GISAT-1 Satellite:

Geo Imaging Satellite or GISAT is an Indian imaging satellite class for geostationary orbit with a high temporal resolution, meant for providing near real time imaging with fast revisit capability and real time monitoring. Two identical satellites will provide resolution in the range of 42 to 318 m. It will carry multi-spectral (Visible and Near-InfraRed, and Short Wave-InfraRed), multi-resolution (42 to 318 m) imaging instruments. The first satellite; EOS-03 (GISAT-1) was launched on 12 August 2021 but failed to reach orbit as cryogenic upper stage of GSLV could not ignite.

Launch of GISAT-1 Satellite:

Indian Space Research ORGANISATION (ISRO) launched India's "eye in the sky" - the GISAT-1 Earth observation satellite (EOS) at 05:43am on Thursday. The satellite was launched on a geosynchronous satellite launch vehicle (GSLV) from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC) at SRIHARIKOTA in Andhra Pradesh as a part of the GSLV-F10 EOS-03 mission. India watched the much-touted event with fascination, which was set up days before people celebrate the country's achievements on Independence Day.

Imaging Capabilities of GISAT-1:

GISATs will image in multi-spectral and hyper-spectral bands to provide near real-time pictures of large areas of the country, under cloud-free conditions, at frequent intervals which is, selected field image in every 5 minutes and entire Indian landmass image every 30 minutes at 42 m spatial resolution.

Features of GISAT-1 are:

Imaging capabilities of GISAT-1 
BandChannelsGround Resolution(m)Range(μm)
Multispectral (VNIR)6420.45 – 0.875
Hyperspectral (VNIR)1583180.375 – 1.0
Hyperspectral (SWIR)2561910.9 – 2.5

Launch schedule of GISAT-1:

DesignationCOSPAR IDNORAD IDPowerLaunchOrbital parameters
Launch date, Time (UTC)Launch massLaunch vehicleLaunch siteOrbitLongitude
Failed to orbit2280 watts12 August 2021,
00:13 UTC
2268 kgGSLV-F10SDSCGTO85.5° East (planned)
TBDTBD2280 watts2022 (planned)2268 kgGSLV-F12SDSCGTO

Cause of failure of GISAT-1:

According to the ISRO, the GSLV-F10 launch took place at 05.43 IST as scheduled. Performance of the first and second stages was normal. However, the cryogenic upper stage ignition did not happen due to a technical anomaly. It appears that while the first two stages separated without a hitch, the ignition of the third stage did not take place as programmed. The ISRO has confirmed that this mission could not be accomplished as planned. This failure is all the more surprising because the rocket launches since 2017 have been successful, and this breaks a long run of successful launches.

Rescheduling of GISAT-1:

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